District Profile

District Profile
SALIENT FEATURES
History : Machilipatnam town has been the Head quarters of the District since the British period till date. It is also the Head quarters of a Revenue Division. It is a trading centre for the Agricultural produce of its hinter land. It has also developed into an important centre of education with a good no. of schools and colleges located here. Noble College was established in 1864, it was 1st College in Andhra Pradesh. National College was established in 1910. There is see in the east side. Machilipatnam constituted in a Municipality in 1866, 2nd Municipality in India. Machilipatnam is the one of the oldest town which was known to be a great port town on the eastern costs of the Country.
Location :
Latitude  :  15° 43’ N and 17° 10’ N
Longitude  :  80° 0’ and 81° 33’ of E.
AREA  :  8,727 Sq. Kms.
Coastal Line  :  88 Kms.
Boundaries  : East Bay of Bengal and West Godavari district
: West Guntur and Nalgonda districts
: North Khammam district
: South Bay of Bengal
HILLS The main hill range of the district known as Kondapalli runs between Nandigama and Vijayawada with a length of about 24 Kms. The other impart hills are Jammalavoidurgam, Mogalrajapuram and Indrakiladri hills. On the Indrakiladri hills at Vijayawada stands the famous temple of Kanakadurga.
RIVERS: The chief rivers of the district are the Krishna (length 1,280 kms) Muniyeru (Muneru), the Tammileru and Budameru. Krishna river debouches in to the Bay of Bengal at Hamsala Divi and Nachugunta in this district. The district contains small hillstreams viz., Jayanthi, Kattaleru, Ippalavagu, Upputeru, Telleru, Ballaleru, Nadimeyeru.
FLORA The district has no worth mentioning forests. However, it contains Reserved Forest areas in Nandigama, Vijayawada, Tiruvuru, Nuzvid, Gannavaram, Bandar and Divi taluks. A type of lightwood known as ‘PONUKU’ (Gyrocapus Jacquini) is found on the Kondapalli hills. The wood is used for the manufacture of the well known Kondpalli toys. The most noticeable trees are pterocarpus, Terminalia, Anogeissus and Logustroeinai and Casuarina.
FAUNA In Krishna district the fails also merge at one time tigers and sambar were found on the Medasala Durga – ridge and on the Kondapalli and Jamalavayi hills. But they are very rare now. Panthers, Hyaena, Jungle cat, fox and bear are the carnivorous mammalian fauna represented. Among the herbivorous animal’s deer, spotted deer sambar and blackbuck are sometimes found in the interior inland forests. A migrant gray billed pelican is a protected bird in the Kollair lake boarding the Krishna district. The district possesses a large number of Murrah buffaloes and cows with Murrah stain.
CLIMATE: The climatic conditions of the district are of extreme kind with hot summers and cold winters and may be classified as tropical. The period starting from April to June is the hottest.
RAINFALL:  The average normal rainfall is 1028.1 mm.
SOIL: Three types of soils viz.,}  Black Cotton (57.6%)  Sand clay loams (22.3%)  Red loams (19.4%)
AGRICULTURE Endowed with a rich variety of soils, the district occupies an important place in Agriculture, which is the most important occupation, and Paddy is the main food crop produced.
LITERACY Krishna district has recorded a literacy rate of 70.03. The district is well advanced in field of education.
AVAILABLITY OF MINIRAL SOURCES:
Chromite Kondapalli hills and adjoining areas
Diamonds Paritala, Ustepalls, Kondavatikallu, Ramannapet, Suryavaram, Kothapet, Nemalipuram, Mugaluru, Putrela etc.
Iron Ore Jaggayyapet area
Lime Stone Jaggayyapet area
Mica Tiruvuru area
Salphur Kona in Machilipatnam Mandal.
TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATIONS:  Vijayawada City is the largest commercial centre of this district and also there is an important railway junction being connected to Delhi, Calcutta,Madras, Hubli, Gudivada and Machilipatnam.It has an Aerodrome at Gannavaram about 16 Kms away and a minor sea port at Machilipatnam.The second largest Bus Station complex in the state is also located in Vijayawada.